What is Instructional Design (ID)?
Instructional Design simply defined means using a systematic process to understand a human performance problem, figuring out what to do about it and then doing something about it.
Why is ID important?
- to deliver new knowledge
- to build skills
- to change attitudes
Four Step Model
- most important step
- establishes the design framework
- planning mean
- formulating objectives
- analyzing the training situation
- outlining the body
- determining the method, sequence and instructional approach
- Structuring your topic information in a written framework
- a main body
- a conclusion
- a summary
- Styles of training delivery and rhetorical devices
- The action portion of the design
- This where everything you designed comes alive
- Consists of trainer - directed activities to measure the trainer’s understanding of the materials
- Evaluation activities range from the informal "trainer ask question trainee nods head" to the formal writing examination.
STEP ONE - PLANNING
Easy if you use the newswriter’s formula of what, who, when, where, why and how.
- What to be done
Why you are doing the training Objectives
- How you’ve done it right
First thing to do is to prepare well-stated learning objectives.
The reason for developing well-stated learning objectives:-
- to guide the topics development by determining what is to be presented:
- Formulating an objectives
Consist of :
- purpose e.g. To teach
- topic e.g. a new inventory system
- desired result e.g. so that trainers can understand and explain the system to others
To teach a new inventory system so that trainers can understand and explain the system to others
- Analyzing the situation
Involves answering the other questions in the formula:
- who is the audience
- when will the training take place
- where is the training site
- group to be trained
- any special group? Individual?
- Age, education, seniority, ethnic etc.
- precise date
- starting time
- compete with after-lunch drowsiness?
- complete address
- building identification
- room location
- special instruction for getting there and getting past security and into the training facility
- What does the training room look like?
- Check the seating lighting, temperature
Location and direction:
- Rest room?
- Entrance, the closest telephone, photocopying machine, parking and emergency service
- Will you be in a hotel, lecture hall, classroom/auditorium?
- Will there be a problem with note taking or lines of sight to your visual aids?
- How are chairs arranged?
- Can they be rearranged f need be?
- Room arrangement:
- Elevation - will the group be looking up pr down at you? Where can you best display your visual aids?
- Room shape - does the shape of the room hinder the most effective use of your visual aids?
- Room size - is the room the right size for your group? Can you change rooms if your audience size change?
- Availability - how much time will you have to prepare the facilities before your training? How much time can you spend after the training answering questions?
- Equipment - do you need projector? Whiteboard, tables, etc. Are you familiar with the equipment? Will there be an opportunity to test it? Are back up bulbs etc. Available in case of equipment failure?
- Knowledge of the topic:
- How much the group already know about your topic? - help you determine the depth of materials you must cover.
- How many people will attend?
- Vocabulary :
- Keep in mind the level of your audience
- Choosing an effective title
A title should be clear and simple
- reflect your objectives
- avoid flowery titles
- Developing the body of the presentation
Must consider the following seven elements:
- developing your topic
- selecting an approach
- determining the sequence you will use to present the material
- selecting your method of presentation
- writing the major points of your lecture
- providing support for those points
- organizing the body
- Develop presentation aids
Five reason to use supplementary aids:
- When a point is too complex for spoken word alone. Words can be misunderstood more easily than simple pictures
- When the point calls for a specific visual image
- When you are working for a high level of retention. People grasp and remember visual images much more easily then intellectual arguments.
- When you need to summarizes, especially if you are attempting to pull several points together, the adage really does apply: ‘a picture is worth a thousand words"
Three instructional technologies:
- object aids - 3D, 2D
- projected aids
- non-projected aids - tables, chart, list, diagrams, map etc.
- Preliminary evaluation
- Start considering how you will evaluate the effectiveness of your instructional design.
- Remember that evaluation is really a test of your effectiveness.
- Evaluation prove you did your job.
- Second purpose of evaluation: to reinforce in the minds of your audience what they are learning.
STEP TWO - PREPARING
- Gathering the building blocks
- The art of preparing introductions, conclusions and summaries.
- The introduction
- Now you are ready to sit down and write your training presentation.
- Take fine in writing your introduction.
- The introduction is really the first time the participants meet you.
- Now is the time to make a great impression.
- If you don’t get their attention now, it will be difficult to hold their attention and have your information accepted.
Three rules to follow when writing your introduction:
- Write out the introduction completely for yourself. Usually the worst part of delivering a talk is the first few minutes. A written introduction will help you to get over the first awkward moments.
- The introduction should only take about 10% of the speaking time. You should be able to explain the topic, state your objective, and hit the high points of the succeeding modules quickly.
- Write the introduction for your audience. Keep it at level they can easily understand.
Designing your introduction
- To acknowledge - your sponsor, to give some recognition to the company, group or individuals who arranged the gathering, and to give some background about you to established your authority and reason for being there.
- To gained attention of the trainers and to motivate them to listen.
- Need not be a clown to gain attention.
- Could design a series of question related to the modules
- humorous story or joke.
- To provide an overview of the entire presentation.
- Let them see the objectives.
- The conclusion
Is your last pitch - will be the most likely to remember. The same rules apply to the conclusion as the introduction, last no more than 20% of your speaking time.
Three elements of the conclusion should do the following:
- Summarize your presentation.
- Review your main point.
- Reiterate your strongest, most salient point.
- Do not bring any new materials.
- Motivate your audience
- Make they glad the came to hear you.
- Remind everyone why and specifically how to do what you want them to do.
- Close your presentation
- develop a concise closing statement that will be pointed enough to be remember when the training is over.
- The form of a printed handout or a one-page synopsis.
- Should contain
- title - name of the trainer
- date - time, place objectives, main point.
Motivating your audience
- develop some friendly, polite clinchers along the line.
Think back to presenters who brought their talks to a graceful and effective end.
- Questions and answers
- if the presentation is to include a questions and answers periods, write out all the questions you might be asked, and rehearse some stock answers.
- Having considered the questions beforehand, less likely to be trapped, can get you into real trouble.
- Rehearsals and Revision
- The best trainers rehearse and rehearse.
- You rehearse to:
- check terminology and content.
- Time yourself;
- read the introduction
- talk through the body of your presentation using your cues.
- Present all your aids.
- Read the conclusion.
- Write down the time spent with each portion, and total it all up.
- Lesson plan format and checklist.
- Body of presentation
- outline subject matter
- develop your approach
- select main point and supports
- concentrate on how to make the lesson effective;
- talk on level of the audience
- encourage group participation
- emphasize and repeat major point
- push the group mentally by asking question
- use attention getting presentation aids
- involve the group in as many as activities
- change your position often
- pitch your voice to give emphasis uses different gestures
- be creative, vary your communication techniques
- Audience participation
- Conclusion - about 20% of presenting time
- Review the lesson plan.
- To be review by another?
- Should review by the proper authority?
- Complete the final draft
STEP THREE - CONDUCTING
Presenting the program
- Using the lesson plan
- Can be use by someone who teaching a series of the same course.
- The lesson plan takes over.
- A lesson plan, properly written, can be used by anyone to do the training.
Five lesson plan component:
- title, course
- time required, methods
- approach, sequence
- presentation aids, trainee, materials, equipment, reference.
- expands the main points.
- time cues, instructional activities.
- Determining enabling objectives
- program objectives: e.g. To teach a new technique....
- instructional objectives: e.g. After each portion of the training module, trainees should be able to complete the following;
- major parts of the instructional objectives;
- Plan for testing
- to judge the effective of your training presentation.
- necessary to determine whether student have mastered the training/objectives.
- Managing the training environment.
- common problem when conducting training session.
Problem 1 - non communicative group or individuals
- ask direction question t the group.
- Ask yes/no question.
- Restate or reword question or statement to focus attention
- state it aloud.
Problem 2 - compulsive, insistent teller.
- ask yes/no, thank the trainee - back to your presentation.
- offer to relay follow-up question to someone outside of the presentation.
- get together outside the lecture/after the presentation.
- take the trainee aside at break and discuss, be tactful but firm.
Problem 3- you lose control of your presentation.
- re-establish eye contact. Look each person in the eyes - direct their eyes to you.
- change your position, stand up, sit down, move to the front, walk aside, force the audience to notice you - to look at you.
- use the chalkboard or visual aids. Redirect he group to a point where you want them.
- summarize or re-motivate.
- change the volume or tone of your voice.
- call a recess or break.
Problem 4 - The group gets off the topic.
- restate your objectives
- ask yes/no question.
- use presentation aids.
- Ask for the trainees’ views.
STEP FOUR - EVALUATING
Evaluating is the final part of the instructional design.
Plan Prepare Conduct you have reach the moment of truth. How well did you perform, how well did your presentation meet your stated objectives.
(i) Testing for result.
- Question may be of the essay, true-false, multiple choice, completion or matching type.
- performance or a demonstration
- structured role-playing in a case study
- group projects
- group or individual problem solving
- open discussion in a seminar format
- small group questioning and discussion.
McArdle, Geri E. H. (1991). Developing instructional design - A step-by-step guide
to success. California: Crisp Publications, Inc.
Disediakan oleh: Shaffe bin Mohd. Daud, Jabatan PSPP, Okt. 96.