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INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

 

 

What is Instructional Design (ID)?

 

Instructional Design simply defined means using a systematic process to understand a human performance problem, figuring out what to do about it and then doing something about it.

 

Why is ID important?

 

Three reasons:-

 

  1. to deliver new knowledge
  2. to build skills
  3. to change attitudes

 

Four Step Model

 

  1. Planning

 

 

  1. Preparing

 

 

 

 

  1. Conducting

 

  1. Evaluating

 

 

 

STEP ONE - PLANNING

 

Easy if you use the newswriter’s formula of what, who, when, where, why and how.

 

 

First thing to do is to prepare well-stated learning objectives.

 

The reason for developing well-stated learning objectives:-

 

 

  1. Formulating an objectives

 

Consist of :

 

To teach a new inventory system so that trainers can understand and explain the system to others

 

 

 

 

  1. Analyzing the situation

 

Involves answering the other questions in the formula:

 

 

WHO

 

 

WHEN

 

 

WHERE

 

 

Site:

 

Location and direction:

 

Facilities:

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Choosing an effective title

 

A title should be clear and simple

 

 

 

 

  1. Developing the body of the presentation

 

Must consider the following seven elements:

 

 

  1. Develop presentation aids

 

Five reason to use supplementary aids:

 

 

Three instructional technologies:

 

 

  1. Preliminary evaluation

 

 

STEP TWO - PREPARING

 

 

  1. The introduction

 

 

Three rules to follow when writing your introduction:

 

  1. Write out the introduction completely for yourself. Usually the worst part of delivering a talk is the first few minutes. A written introduction will help you to get over the first awkward moments.
  2.  

  3. The introduction should only take about 10% of the speaking time. You should be able to explain the topic, state your objective, and hit the high points of the succeeding modules quickly.
  4.  

  5. Write the introduction for your audience. Keep it at level they can easily understand.

 

Designing your introduction

 

  1. To acknowledge - your sponsor, to give some recognition to the company, group or individuals who arranged the gathering, and to give some background about you to established your authority and reason for being there.
  2.  

  3. To gained attention of the trainers and to motivate them to listen.

 

  1. To provide an overview of the entire presentation.

 

  1. The conclusion

 

Is your last pitch - will be the most likely to remember. The same rules apply to the conclusion as the introduction, last no more than 20% of your speaking time.

 

Three elements of the conclusion should do the following:

 

  1. Summarize your presentation.

 

  1. Motivate your audience

 

  1. Close your presentation

 

The summary.

 

Motivating your audience

 

Closing

 

  1. Review

 

Think back to presenters who brought their talks to a graceful and effective end.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Questions and answers

 

 

  1. Rehearsals and Revision

 

 

  1. Lesson plan format and checklist.

 

 

 

  1. Review the lesson plan.

 

 

 

STEP THREE - CONDUCTING

 

Presenting the program

 

  1. Using the lesson plan

 

 

Five lesson plan component:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Determining enabling objectives

 

1.

2.....

3....

 

 

  1. Plan for testing

 

 

  1. Managing the training environment.

 

 

Problem 1 - non communicative group or individuals

 

Solution

 

Problem 2 - compulsive, insistent teller.

 

Solution

 

Problem 3- you lose control of your presentation.

 

Solution

 

Problem 4 - The group gets off the topic.

 

Solution

 

 

STEP FOUR - EVALUATING

 

Evaluating is the final part of the instructional design.

 




Plan Prepare Conduct you have reach the moment of truth. How well did you perform, how well did your presentation meet your stated objectives.

 

(i) Testing for result.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference:

 

McArdle, Geri E. H. (1991). Developing instructional design - A step-by-step guide

to success. California: Crisp Publications, Inc.

 

 

 

 

Disediakan oleh: Shaffe bin Mohd. Daud, Jabatan PSPP, Okt. 96.